In cooperation with one of Malaysia’s most prominent medical device developers, we are happy to offer the “Reszonics Rapid Covid-19 Antibody Test”, a rapid result, finger prick test that reveals IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human blood. The Reszonics Rapid Covid-19 Antibody Test provides results within minutes about the immune system response in our body and does not need extra lab equipment. According to the new FDA policy, the serological tests are available only to “point-of-care” facilities, including laboratories, hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, and where healthcare workers are involved in treating and/or testing patients.
Antibody testing will help health experts better assess how many people contracted the novel coronavirus. After weeks of sheltering in place, Americans are asking how soon we can return to a more normal life outside our homes. Much of the answer might be in a test. (USA TODAY)
To learn more please scroll down the page. To place an order request click the button below or scroll to the bottom of the page.
Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 serological tests based on detecting antibodies in the blood and nucleic acid tests based on detecting the virus using reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are complementary rather than competing approaches. Because of the relatively short time since the outbreak and the rather limited testing and demographic data available, we are currently assembling detailed clinical performance benchmarks, including analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and other parameters. By extrapolation to testing on other viruses, including the causative agents of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), PCR tests and serological tests have been used for a long time by health professionals to identify various infections with considerable reliability (see references).
For patients who are asymptomatic and want to be tested to obtain greater information about possible exposure, PCR and serological testing may both produce satisfactory results depending on the time and extent of exposure, individual immune response and other factors.
The time between exposure and antibody production (seroconversion time) is probably 3-15 days for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. During this period, even if the person is exposed to the virus or has been identified as positive by RT- PCR, a serological test may score negative if the antibody level in the blood specimen is below the analytical sensitivity of the blood test. So the recommendation for symptomatic patients is that their first testing should be absolutely a PCR test, NOT A SEROLOGICAL TEST.
While antibodies aren’t suitable for diagnosing active COVID-19 infections, antigens are likely detectable in the sputum from the onset of symptoms. What’s more, by combining antigen detection with a format that can provide rapid results for use at the point-of-care (PoC), community-based, or even door-to-door testing could soon become a reality – allowing those who suspect an infection to get quick results and determine whether they should isolate and/or seek medical care.
Fortunately, a range of PoC formats have been developed with simplicity and portability in mind. So-called lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the most popular choice. These simple and easy-to-produce devices rely on the property of fluid analytes to move through absorbent substances on their own accord, via a phenomenon known as capillary flow.
Basic design of lateral flow assay, akin to home pregnancy tests. LFAs typically comprise a plastic cassette, containing a strip of paper that is able to absorb and transport analyte.
1) Analyte from blood or sputum is first added to one end of the paper strip, where it is absorbed by the paper, allowing the viral antigens to migrate along it.
2) These antigens first encounter an area of conjugate antibodies, which adhere to them, along with detectable tags.
3) The antigens then migrate to an area of test antibodies that are highly specific to the virus and bind to produce a solid, visible line that indicates a positive result, and hence, confirmed infection. Secondary control lines can then be used to detect conjugate antibodies and ensure that the test is working correctly.
Q: What is the difference between the types of tests available for SARS-CoV-2?
A: “Nucleic acid amplification tests,” or “NAAT” tests are molecular tests that detect the virus’s genetic material in a sample that typically comes from a patient’s respiratory system. FDA-authorized NAAT tests for SARS-CoV-2 meet the EUA statutory standard, and based on the current available data, we believe are highly accurate. This means that a positive or a negative result from a NAAT test is likely to be true.
Another type of test, called a serology or antibody test, measures the amount of antibodies present in the blood when the body is responding to a specific infection, like COVID-19. This means the test detects the body’s immune response to the infection caused by the virus rather than detecting the virus itself. In the early days of an infection when the body’s immune response is still building, antibodies may not be detected. This limits the test’s effectiveness for diagnosing COVID-19 and why it should not be used as the sole basis to diagnose COVID-19.
In response to an infection, such as COVID-19, the body develops an overall immune response to fight the infection. One component of the immune system’s response is development of antibodies that attach to the virus and help eliminate it. The body’s initial immune reaction produces general antibodies that attack many infections, called “IgM” antibodies. IgM antibodies indicate an active or recent infection. Because it takes time for the body to make IgM antibodies in response to SARS-CoV-2, their absence does not mean that someone is not infected. A test for IgM antibodies may give a false negative result in a patient with SARS-CoV-2, particularly early in infection. A patient may have a negative result early in infection even when they are symptomatic or asymptomatic but actively shedding the virus. Since IgM antibodies may not develop early or at all in infected patients, this type of antibody test is not used to rule out SARS-CoV-2 in an individual.
Over time, the body develops a second type of antibody in response to the infection that is more specific to the virus, called “IgG” antibodies. Most antibody tests detect IgG antibodies. On average, IgG antibodies take about 4 weeks to develop, but the time to development may vary substantially, and there is still a lot we do not know about SARS-COV-2. Since IgG antibodies generally do not develop until several weeks after infection, this type of antibody test, even though it is more specific to SARS-CoV-2, is not used to rule-out SARS-CoV-2 infection in an individual.
We also do not know how long IgM or IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 will remain present in the body after the infection has been cleared.
Q: If antibody tests are not used for diagnosis or exclusion of COVID-19 infection, what is their purpose? (Updated 4/17)
A: Serology tests that detect antibodies may detect different types of antibodies. The most common are IgM and IgG. A positive result from an appropriately validated serology test that detects IgM is likely to indicate that someone currently has or has recently had the virus. But a serology can yield a negative test result even in infected patients (e.g., if antibody has not yet developed in response to the virus) or may be falsely positive (e.g., if antibody to a coronavirus type other than the current pandemic novel strain is present). Thus, antibody tests by themselves are of limited value in the immediate diagnosis of a patient where COVID-19 infection is suspected. Using this type of test on many patients may help the medical community better understand how the immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 virus develops in patients over time and how many people may have been infected. While there is a lot of uncertainty with this new virus, it is also possible that, over time, broad use of antibody tests and clinical follow-up will provide the medical community with more information on whether or not and how long a person who has recovered from the virus is at lower risk of infection if they are exposed to the virus again.
Serology tests are of limited value in the immediate diagnosis or screening of a patient where COVID-19 infection is suspected because they cannot rule out presence of the virus. But positive results from appropriately validated serology tests that are designed to be very specific to the SARS-CoV-2 virus can confirm either that a patient has (for IgM antibodies), or more likely has recovered from (for IgG antibodies) a COVID-19 infection. In addition, although not everyone who is infected will develop an antibody response, appropriately validated serology tests, when used broadly, can be useful in understanding how many people have been infected or exposed and how far the pandemic has progressed.
Serology tests can play a critical role in the fight against COVID-19 by helping healthcare professionals identify individuals who have been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 virus and have developed an immune response. In the future, this may potentially be used to help determine, together with other clinical data, whether these individuals may be less susceptible to infection. In addition, these test results can aid in determining who may donate a part of their blood called convalescent plasma, which may serve as a possible treatment for those who are seriously ill from COVID-19.
As required by FDA, the Reszon test can be provided only to “point-of-care” facilities, including laboratories, hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, and anywhere healthcare workers are involved in treating and/or testing patients.